Tag Archives: Cognitive Functions

Personality Types: The Result of Humanity’s Evolution?

A Sensors role is to maintain and protect society, and they tend to think in a one-by-one manner, when it comes to concepts.

An intuitive’s role in society is to innovate, design, enhance, invent, and lead during times of great change or chaos. They tend to think about a million different things at the same time, lol.

I like to look at personality types from an evolutionary standpoint.

Personality types evolved into the psyche of individuals, because each type of personality carries out a certain role or function in society. Therefore, it is the mix of all different types, each taking up a certain portion of the population.


The percentage of a specific type when compared to the entire population is not relevant to how important that type is.

Society, Nature, The World, Time, Magic, God, and Mayor McCheese all combined forces to figure out what society needed to survive, progress, and continue to enhance.


Sensors vs Intuitives – What Role Does Each Type Play in Society?

I hear often, when talking to another intuitive person for the first time about personality types, the same general complaint:

“So and so” [A Sensing Type] thinks I’m weird. [An Intuitive Type]

The best is the look on the person’s face, when I respond with: “Well, they (The Sensing Type) are absolutely correct.”

“Weird,” by definition, is something that is abnormal, uncanny, strange, unusual, or unexpected.

So, the Sensing-dominant person is correct for multiple reasons:


Right off the bat, 70% of the population prefers Sensing, versus only 30% favoring Intuition. This means that intuitives are actually less likely to exist, according to pure statistics.

The Sensing Type person is probably “normal,” which means conforming to a standard; usual, typical, or expected. They are significantly more populous in society, making them more expected.


Introverted Feeling VS Extraverted Feeling as a Primary Function

It is an often held misconception that someone just slips from being say an ENFJ to an INFJ depending on their extraversion amount. They may become more or less shy and therefore “switch” personality types.

This couldn’t be further from the truth. The term extraversion and introversion refers to the function that a person leads with (their Dominant function). A person’s dominant function will never change over the course of their entire life. It is developed and identifiable at a young age, and only gets stronger as time goes on.

Being an “Introvert” or an “extrovert” as a person is a coincidence that (oftentimes) correlates with a person’s dominant function. However, the difference between Extroverted Feeling / Sensing / Intuiting / Thinking and Introverted Feeling / Sensing / Intuiting / Thinking are quite different.

It’s more than just that one focuses on the outside world, where the other pulls from within. That is a simplified explanation.

Over the next few days, I will compare the leading functions of all the various personality types. It is important that you know what you’re leading function is. You will see why a person does not switch or “is in between an E and I” (This “X” nonsense drives me mad.)

This is because the sites that often do these personality assessments do not explain properly what a personality assessment truly means.

First up will be Feeling as the leading / dominant function.

  • Extraverted Feeling: ENFJ and ESFJ
  • Introverted Feeling: INFP and ISFP
  • Extraverted Feeling

    The process of Extraverted Feeling often involves a want to connect with (or disconnect from) others and is often shown by expressions of warmth (or displeasure) and self-disclosure.

  • The “social graces,” such as being polite, being nice, being friendly, being considerate, and being proper, often revolve around the process of extraverted Feeling.
  • Keeping in touch, laughing at jokes when others laugh, and trying to get people to act kindly to each other also involve extraverted Feeling.
  • Using this process, we respond according to expressed or even unexpressed wants and needs of others.
  • We may ask people what they want or need or self-disclose to prompt them to talk more about themselves.
  • This often sparks conversation and lets us know more about them so we can better adjust our behavior to them.
  • Often with this process, we feel pulled to be responsible and take care of others’ feelings, sometimes to the point of not separating our feelings from theirs.
  • We may recognize and adhere to shared values, feelings, and social norms to get along.
  • Semantics of Extraverted Feeling as a Leading Function

    (How people who lead with Extraverted Feeling tend to speak when in a generic, group setting.)


    1. Describing fields of relationships and actions that take place between people.
  • describing influences on living objects
  • 2. Describing external, observable manifestations of emotions
  • spectacles
  • describing emotional states or degrees of arousal
  • 3. Using sonic forms of words as a means of expressing emotions
  • describing audible behavior and imitating sounds
  • situating word creation to convey shades of emotion
  • expressive interjections and exclamations
  • Speech Peculiarities:

  • frequent use of emotionally charged adjectives.
  • combining emotional adjectives and adverbs that are opposite in meaning.
  • quoting poems, songs, etc. that show their current emotional situation.
  • informal, colloquial, “non-dictionary” vocabulary.
  • intentionally violating the stylistic flow with words that are either highly colloquial or archaic.
  • intonationally conveying emotional states.
  • personification of inanimate objects; increasing the number of actors involved in each story.
  • Dominant Fields of Activity and Topics of Conversation:

  • gossiping
  • evoking emotional reactions in others
  • changing and creating any kind of emotional atmosphere and any kind of nuances in communication.
  • strong emotions and impressions.
  • Intraverted Feeling

    It is often hard to assign words to the values used to make introverted Feeling judgments, since they are often associated with images, feeling tones, and gut reactions more than words.

  • As a cognitive process, it often serves as a filter for information that matches what is valued, wanted, or worth believing in.
  • There can be a continual weighing of the situational worth or importance of everything and a patient balancing of the core issues of peace and conflict in life’s situations.
  • We engage in the process of introverted Feeling when a value is compromised and we think, “Sometimes, some things just have to be said.”
  • On the other hand, most of the time this process works “in private” and is expressed through actions.
  • It helps us know when people are being fake or insincere or if they are good. It is like having an internal sense of the “essence” of a person or a project and reading fine distinctions among feeling tones.
  • Semantics of Individuals with Intraverted Feeling as their Leading Function

    (How People with Intraverted Feeling as their Leading function tend to talk when in a generic, group setting.)


    1. Describing one’s feelings and attitudes toward things and people.
  • influences on feelings
  • feelings
  • 2. Describing relationships between people as a constant factor.
  • describing psychological distance.
  • links (between people).
  • 3. Evaluating objects
  • evaluations that include oaths or insults
  • constant traits; personality and character traits
  • evaluating people’s behavior
  • Speech Peculiarities:

  • superfluous use of diminutive and augmentative suffixes
  • qualitative adjectival evaluations
  • constructions using the word “relationship”
  • metaphors related to “links”
  • Dominant Fields of Activity and Topics of Conversation:

  • relationships between people
  • evaluating people (personality and character traits) and their deeds and conduct
  • evaluating the motives behind behavior
  • empathy; the ability to feel what others feel and understand their motives
  • Chris Hoeller NEVER Takes a Day Off


    So, this past weekend I actually went out to party for the first time in quite a while. We hit the regular club and after it closed down, we ended up at some shady, after-hours club that stayed open until 8:00am.

    They stop serving alcohol at 2:00am, so pretty much everybody there was either already really drunk or most likely on some other substance. I mean, I’m 99% sure that there were drug deals going on all around me.

    There I was, at this rave-style club, with people on all sorts of drugs. I’m doing personality tests with my phone, explaining Jungian psychology, cognitive functions, and inter-type relations to complete strangers.

    They were totally into it, too. If all schools operated this way, we’d have a society of Einsteins…

    ENTPs Make Poor Managers but Exceptional Leaders

    I was asked on a forum “how an ENTP can be an effective manager.” My original advice:

    • Look busy.
    • Keep making the rounds.
    • Allow people to know you for your spontaneity and use it as a plus (like you could be checking up on them at any time).
    • Stay available to reach.
    • Find a great ISTJ assistant who naturally thrives on organization.

    When I try too hard to stay organized, I usually end up exhausting all of my effort into creating the organizational tool (that’s just me personally). I find that by staying in motion and in touch with every department, your natural Ne will pick up on the missing pieces. I could spend ten hours inventing a method to stay on top of everything, or I could simply walk around and allow it to happen naturally.

    ENTPs don’t make good “traditional managers,” but can still be quite effective, even in traditional corporate environments (if the structure isn’t too rigid).

    To add upon my earlier half-joking statements about “looking busy and keep making the rounds,” or my support of getting an ISTJ secretary, the true power of an ENTP manager / leader comes from their ability to delegate, empower, and encourage. It is this quality that makes for poor ENTP managers but exceptional ENTP leaders.

    ENTPs don’t want to demand stuff of others, because we hate it when it’s done to us. However, an ENTP can delegate out responsibilities by simply asking, explaining why it’s important, and making their subordinates feel empowered and trusted. This makes an ENTP manager / leader a force to be reckoned with, and soon you’ll have the staff working with you to accomplish the goals, not simply working for you out of fear of reprimand.

    Surprise me

    The staff will respect and trust you, because you respect and trust them. I know it sounds cliché, but it actually works. Employees will work HARDER for you than any other type of manager, or should I say, leader. Good luck!

    Socionics – Intertype Relationships: A Brief Description



    Two like-minded partners who strive to occupy similar social niches. Understand each others motives and goals and easily become jealous of each other’s successes, especially if partners have the same social status. Good for occasionally touching base and sharing experiences, and for teaching purposes — if one partner is older and more experienced. Difficult for doing multi-faceted tasks together; partners quickly tire of each other, and cooperation tends to break down if they have the same status. Partners tend to talk only on subjects related to their mutual strengths and avoid other topics. They are not able to help solve each others’ real problems and can only offer general advice and relate personal experience. In group settings identity partners who are already personally acquainted tend to avoid one other.


    Like-minded partners with similar views and thinking styles but with different emphases within their common spheres of interest. Generally enjoy discussing their views, but rarely are able to arrive at a complete consensus or make decisions jointly. Less competition and avoidance of each other in groups than identity partners, but also less teaching potential. Partners tire of each other after a couple hours of contact. Cooperation is possible if formalized and if partners are able to maintain their autonomy.


    Partners are interested in many of the same areas, but approach them in completely different ways. Partners are generally impressed with and value one another’s strengths at a distance, but find it difficult to get any practical benefit for themselves from these strengths. Partners cannot form anything more than a superficial relationship with each other.


    Each partner is the embodiment of many qualities the other wishes he had and tries unsuccessfully to develop in himself. Talking about these respective strengths can be enthralling if partners find interest in each other. If partners have a common mission, they cover each others’ weak areas, making for a powerful team. However, close cooperation and ironing out details is difficult, as partners can’t agree on principles. Conflicts and disagreements between super-ego partners are out in the open and are usually discussed very vocally, at times causing heated arguments without a clear winner.


    English: Scheme of duality intertype relation ...
    English: Scheme of duality intertype relation in Socionics. ILE-SEI example.

    Generally very enjoyable and rewarding relationship, especially if partners share common values and interests. Partners strive to shorten the psychological distance and enjoy simply being around each other and doing a wide range of activities together. Effective cooperation takes place automatically, with each partner taking on what he is best at. If partners share common interests, they also have productive discussions where they help each other see things from different complementary viewpoints. Partners relax each other and help release pent-up thoughts and emotions, but seldom feel like straining themselves and doing hard work together. Duality is by far the best relationship for restoring emotional equilibrium, developing spontaneity and natural personality traits, and overcoming fears and complexes.
    More on duality and dual relations

    Partial duality

    Similar to duality in providing meaningful psychological support and important insight along with an element of mutual fascination. However, complete unity and balance are unattainable. Partners are drawn to different groups of people and internally are not as committed or devoted to each other as might be implied during their moments of resonance and self-disclosure. Partners tend to talk much and do little, as if avoiding a common area of weakness.


    Partners are able to provide meaningful assistance in each other’s areas of weakness, often making for fruitful cooperation in getting things done. Partners find each other useful, but almost never fascinating (i.e. someone who you would want to get to know deeply). Thus, partners tend to do more and talk less.


    Partners feel a strange draw to each other that seems to promise much but never delivers. Partners seem to be interested in the same fields and have similar yearnings, but they describe things in a strange and fascinating, but ultimately unfathomable way. Expectations that go beyond having an interesting conversation are almost never met.


    Partners are good at helping solve each other’s real-life problems and are able to be open with one another without causing misunderstandings. Thus, discussing life and solving problems is very rewarding and productive. When doing complex projects together that require lots of planning and commitment, however, partners discover that they have different rhythms and that minor misunderstandings constantly arise. Partners tend to take each other too literally and act on each other’s recommendations too quickly, leading to disappointment when the other doesn’t follow through or makes changes to his plans. Also, communication tends to be either too intense or too slow. Partners rev each other up mentally and physically and then need to increase the psychological distance to relax and return to a state of equilibrium.

    Request (+/-)

    Asymmetric relationship. One partner (the recipient) finds he is constantly trying to solve the other person’s (the transmitter’s) problems and is overly emotionally involved in the other partner’s life — always waiting for a reward from the transmitter. The transmitter, on the other hand, is largely unaware of this and wonders why the recipient is so dependent and so sensitive to the things he (the transmitter) says.


    Partners seem to share broad areas of interest in a way that is similar to identity or kindred partners. However, the language they formulate their thoughts in is hopelessly different and hard to digest at a close psychological distance. Moreover, partners are drawn to opposing social groups where the other partner does not feel comfortable. Partners are unable to provide meaningful support and have to strain to reach a mutual understanding.


    Partners can be themselves around each other without causing misunderstandings. Partners have a correct intuitive understanding of each other and are rarely surprised by anything the other does or says. Arguments are very rare. They always have things to say on the same topics and easily come to a consensus, but at the same time put opposite emphasis on things, creating a revisionary effect. These relations are highly verbally oriented, with partners discussing their hobby topics (and avoiding most others) and revising and adding to each other’s views. Partners tire from the discussionary nature of the relationship and try to separate for work and rest. Partners immediately liven up when someone else shows up who is the dual of one and the activator of the other partner.

    Supervision (+/-)

    Asymmetric relationship. One partner (the recipient) feels like he is being watched closely by the other (the transmitter) and becomes overly self-conscious and defensive or apologetic. The transmitter doesn’t appreciate most of what the recipient does and underestimates his abilities and personal qualities, which hurts the recipient’s self-esteem and can lead to long-lasting scars. The transmitter is surprised by the recipient’s sensitivity and doesn’t know what to do about it. The recipient feels like he can’t take any initiative when he is around the transmitter, who wonders why the recipient doesn’t do anything on his own. Difficult relations for a close or medium psychological distance.


    Both partners seem to monitor each other’s weak areas. This prevents conflicts from coming out into the open, since both partners feel too unsure of themselves to discuss their relationship effectively. As a result, conflicts stew beneath the surface — causing pain and long-lasting offense (if partners expect anything of each other) — without any hope of resolution. Initially partners may attract each other from a distance because they are such opposites, but their language and thought patterns are hopelessly difficult to digest at a close psychological distance. At best partners may have occasional rare moments of resonance when both are in a strange mood and begin to talk about life without focusing attention on one another.

    ENTP vs ENFP – Two Distinct Breeds of Extraverted Intuition

    Similarities and Differences

    The ENTP and ENFP are similar in many ways. They both share the same dominant trait of Extraverted Intuition (Ne). The difference lies in their second cognitive function, The Supporting Role, which creates two unique types, as similar as they may seem to be on the surface.

    Similarities – Extraverted Intuition as the Dominant Function

    • Relaxed, nonjudgmental, non-aggressive look and demeanor.
    • Person is easily intrigued, starts new things very easily, and always has energy for new beginnings.

    • Relaxed posture and open and easy-going look most of the time.

    • Very often enthusiastic, but rarely physically robust or vigorous.

    • Like to have spontaneous moments rather than traditional / planned situations or “proper” behavior.

    • Spontaneous behavior and the absence of social masks serves to convey one’s “true” self to others. A concern with “proper” behavior only serves to mask the true self.

    Extraverted Intuition (Ne) implies a rejection of the Intraverted Sensing (Si) in one’s behavior. Therefore, Ne types try to interest others with thoughts, insights, and a particular vision of things and not through material means or by exerting a direct physical or visual impact on others.

    Extraverted Intuition (Ne) types “drop out” of situations (and their eyes glaze over and stop “seeing”) because they generally are abstracted from physical stimuli and are thinking about intangible characteristics of the situations they are in. The eyes remain open, but the visual stimuli is not reaching the conscious mind.

    Extraverted Intuition (Ne) implies an ability to recognize and develop high-potential situations, people, and ideas – hence the innate enthusiasm, openness, and the ability to become intrigued and intrigue others. Ne implies attentiveness to the unseen essence of things, and Ne types want to have their essence come through to others.

    Differences – Intraverted Thinking vs Intraverted Feeling as the Supporting (Auxiliary) Function

    ENTP – The Visionary

    • Explorer Inventor
    • Enthusiastic Innovator
    • Inventor
    • One exciting challenge after another
    • Progress is the product
    • Relationships are just another challenge
    • Answer the questions and question the answers
    • Precocious Planner

    Explorative; lighthearted and detached curiosity; focused on interests and ideas; usually upbeat and good-natured.

    The theme for ENTPs is inventing, finding ingenious solutions to people and technical problems.Their talents lie in developing ideas into functional and innovative applications that are the first of their kind. They thrive on finding new ways to use theories to make systems more efficient and people better off. They have a hunger for new projects.

    ENTPs have faith in their ability to instantly come up with new approaches that will work. Engineers of human relationships and systems as well as in the more scientific and technological domains.

    ENTPs tend to smile the same way most of the time, and don’t use all the muscles of their face. This shows that they are little concerned with being agreeable or emotionally involving others. ENTPs have a more distant and detached look than ENFPs.

    • Ti seeks precision, such as the exact word to express an idea. It notices the minute distinctions that define the essence of things, then analyzes and classifies them.
  • Ti examines all sides of an issue, looking to solve problems while minimizing effort and risk. It uses models to root out logical inconsistency.

  • ENFP – The Inspirer

    • Discoverer Advocate
    • Journalist
    • Champion
    • Giving life an extra squeeze
    • People are the product
    • You can never be too close
    • Pied Piper

    Playfulness; tinge of irony; acceptance; frivolous; warm curiosity about people and relationships.

    The theme for ENFPs is inspiration, both of themselves and others. Their talents lie in grasping profound significance, revealing truths, and motivating others. They are very perceptive of others’ hidden motives and purposes. ENFPs are Interested in everything about people and their stories, as long as they are genuine.

    ENFPs have a contagious enthusiasm for “causes” that further good and develop latent potential and the same zeal for disclosing dishonesty and inauthenticity. They are often moved to enthusiastically communicate their “message.”

    ENFPs tend to have a wide, “sincere,” likable smile and to show a wide range of facial expressions. ENFPs have softer expressions than ENTPs, often tilt their head a bit to the side to show their interest in people.

    ENFPs reflect their mood on their face more than ENTPs. At the same time, they are usually somewhat emotionally subdued and do not show powerful passions in their face or movements.

    • With a supporting tole of Intraverted Feeling (Fi), ENFPs are attuned to other people’s feelings and sentiments and are generally aware of people’s emotional response to them.
  • They feel responsibility for the emotional climate of situations they are in and soften these situations by being emotionally open and showing their inner feelings on their face.

  • Fi filters information based on interpretations of worth, forming judgments according to criteria that are often intangible.

  • Fi constantly balances an internal set of values such as harmony and authenticity.

  • Attuned to subtle distinctions, Fi innately senses what is true and what is false in a situation.